&quotThe chemistry and composition of magic mushrooms&quot

Like just about every matter in mom mother nature, magic mushrooms are problem to the effects of their bordering environment. These variables (what&nbspPaul Stamets&nbspcalls &ldquoa constellation of matters&rdquo&nbsp1) include temperature, soil disorders, humidity, competitiveness for usually means, and the effect of problems and predators. Versions in 1 unique or substantially extra variables impact wherever magic mushrooms develop, when, how perfectly, and the compounds they include as appropriately as the quantities of them.

The Compounds in Magic Mushrooms

Magic mushrooms&nbspcontain a cocktail of compounds, some of which end result in psychoactive results in human beings. Some of the regarded compounds in magic mushrooms are&nbsppsilocybin,&nbsppsilocin, norpsilocin,&nbspbaeocystin,&nbspnorbaeocystin, and&nbspaeruginascin. Also, distinct elements of a mushroom can have a variety of portions of compounds. For occasion, a single assessment observed the maximum volume of&nbsppsilocybinin the caps of&nbspPanaeolus subalteatus&nbspas opposed to the peace of the fruiting complete human body.two

Variability in the Chemical Composition of Wild and Cultivated Magic Mushrooms

Many exploration on wild magic mushrooms have found the considerable variability in the compounds they have. These variants are discovered not just from species to species but from batch to batch in a species. Also, studies are shedding gentle on how controlling growing disorders influences the selection and type of lively compounds in cultivated magic mushrooms.

Wild Magic Mushrooms

In 1982, scientists Bigwood and Beug famous a tenfold variation in the&nbsppsilocybin&nbspcontent of&nbspPsilocybe cubensis&nbspcollected in the wild.3&nbspAnother exploration analyzed fifty two samples of wild&nbspPsilocybe semilanceata&nbspcollected in Switzerland about 5 many many years. The&nbsppsilocin&nbspcontent diversified from .21 to two.02% and&nbspbaeocystin&nbspfrom .05 to .seventy seven%.four&nbspTraces of&nbsppsilocin&nbspwere also present. The scientists founded that variability depended on the age of the mushrooms, their dimension, and the portion of the fruiting system they examined. A review by Gartz observed the&nbsppsilocybin&nbspcontent of dried&nbspPsilocybe semilanceata&nbspvaried from .19 to a single.34%.five&nbspThe mushrooms with the lowest mass had the greatest concentrate of&nbsppsilocybin.

In 1988, Gartz noticed&nbspaeruginascin&nbspin ten fruiting bodies of&nbspInocybe aeruginascens.6&nbspHe also pointed out a correlation concerning the total of&nbsppsilocybin,&nbspbaeocystin, and&nbspaeruginascin&nbspin the fruiting bodies. Jensen et al. researched&nbspaeruginascin&nbspfrom&nbspI. aeruginascens&nbspcollected in Potsdam, Germany.7&nbspThe mushrooms contained many amounts of&nbsppsilocybin,&nbspbaeocystin,&nbspnorbaeocystin, and&nbspaeruginascin.


The desk beneath reveals details on the elements in other magic mushrooms.

Desk just one: Components in several species of dried&nbspPsilocybe&nbspmushrooms. Taken from the Paul Stamets book&nbspPsilocybin&nbspMushrooms of the Earth.

&nbspP.c by Overall body bodyweight of Dried Mushroom Merchandise&nbsp
P. azurescensjust one.78.38.358
P. bohemicaone particular.34.eleven.02nine, 10
P. baeocystis.eighty five.fifty nine.10eleven, 12
P. tampanensis.sixty eight.32n/a10
P. hoogshagenii.60.10n/a13
P. stuntzii.36.12.02eleven, twelve

Cultivated Magic Mushrooms

Bigwood and Beug observed a fourfold variance in&nbsppsilocybin&nbspcontent in&nbspPsilocybe cubensis&nbspgrown on rye grain.3Their function also uncovered significant findings relating to the amounts of&nbsppsilocybin&nbspand&nbsppsilocin&nbspin successive flushes (but an additional phrase for the fruiting or harvesting periods) of cultivated&nbspP. cubensis. In ordinary, there was no&nbsppsilocin&nbspin the to start off with and typically the next flush. read this post here of&nbsppsilocinreached a utmost by the fourth flush. The stage of&nbsppsilocybin&nbspshowed no upward or downward improvement over the program of a number of flushes. Even so, it was variable by additional than a variable of 4 as fruiting progressed. Normal, the amount of&nbsppsilocybin&nbspwas just about often two times that of&nbsppsilocin.

In 1989, Gartz uncovered that expanding the tryptamine concentration in a cow dung-rice developing medium increased&nbsppsilocin&nbspcontent in&nbspPsilocybe cubensis&nbspfrom .09% to 3.three% of the dried mushroom surplus excess weight.fourteen&nbspAlso, earning use of larger-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and skinny-layer chromatography (TLC), Gartz learned that the mushrooms produced on the tryptamine-enriched mixture contained only a tiny sum of money of&nbsppsilocybin&nbsp(.01 &ndash .two%).

The Synergy of Compounds in Magic Mushrooms &ndash Limitless Prospective for New Conclusions

At the instant, scientists don&rsquot understand (and are not discovering out) how the compounds in magic mushrooms interact with just about each individual other and with serotonin receptors in the mind, significantly five-HT2A. It&rsquos feasible that&nbspallosteric modulation&nbspplays a component in the in general entourage outcome.


The professional medical trials at current turning into carried out by&nbspCOMPASS Pathways&nbspare employing pure&nbsppsilocybin&nbspin&nbsppsilocybin-assisted remedy for depression. By by yourself,&nbsppsilocybin&nbspcauses distinct effects that it would in the presence of the other compounds ingested when consuming magic mushrooms. Proof for this lies in the anecdotal ordeals (like all all those on&nbspErowid&nbspand&nbspBlueLight) of potential buyers reporting a variety of outcomes from ingesting distinct species of magic mushrooms. Some of these consequences are regarded as superior or appealing this kind of as feelings of euphoria and astounding visualizations. Other good results are substantially considerably less interesting these kinds of as&nbspmuscle weak place and paralysis.

No 1 understands how&nbsppsilocybin-assisted therapy could improve if experts experienced a greater expertise of the conversation concerning&nbspall&nbspof the components in magic mushrooms. That&rsquos not to say the scientific trials are not credible or vital. What requires to be understood is that&nbsppsilocybinis not the only energetic ingredient or&nbspprodrug&nbspin magic mushrooms. Investigation in this location specifications to choose a action back and attain a deeper comprehension of the chemistry of magic mushrooms.


There are plenty of variables managing the type and total of compounds discovered in magic mushrooms. As a conclusion result, these mushrooms have appreciable variability in the focus and kinds of substances they comprise. The restricted scientific scientific studies carried out so considerably rarely scratch the surface area of being familiar with.

Feeding on magic mushrooms unleashes a chemical cocktail of probably psychoactive parts into the bloodstream, ensuing in extremely distinctive penalties than ingesting pure&nbsppsilocybin. Recognition of this principle in the scientific nearby community is vital, adopted by conducting a lot additional investigation into comprehension the specified consequences and interactions of magic mushroom components.

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